At the end of field life, wells require permanent plugging and abandonment (P&A) as part of decommissioning activities. Some UK fields developed in the 1970’s are reaching their end of field life, with UK industry estimates predicting well P&A costs over the next 30-40 years of 24 billion dollars. As well as the high financial cost, there is a significant HSSE exposure to ensure safe and reliable P&A such that no escape of hydrocarbons is possible to the near surface environment.

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