Microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing has provided great value for understanding hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs, including measurement of fracture geometry and optimization of stimulations, completions, and field development. Nevertheless, microseismic monitoring is a complex endeavor and many issues of fielding, analysis, uncertainty, and geophysics should be carefully assessed. The geomechanics of the generation of microseismicity are still being investigated, as well as the source mechanisms and how it all relates to the fracturing process. Besides the value for field development and resource recovery, microseismic monitoring has also proved useful for evaluating environmental and safety issues. Data from thousands of fractures show that the levels of induced seismicity in typical relaxed sedimentary basins are well below any levels that would be of concern for safety or damage. Similarly, data from thousands of fractures show that hydraulic fractures in shale reservoirs do not propagate into aquifers.