ABSTRACT: Rock fracturing and failure in the walls and vaults of large underground openings and especially at the intersections of different caverns, tunnels, adits, etc., are commonly associated with stress concentrations due to the rock mass unloading during the excavation/reinforcement process and with dynamic effects of drill-and-blast operations. Observations in-situ provide an integrated information and it is usually difficult to obtain a differential understanding of the influence of static and dynamic factors. On the contrary, numerical modeling provides the possibility to explore the influence of different phenomena in the same way as in the laboratory experiments. A brief summary of experience in 3D numerical modeling is presented here.

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.