In fractured crystalline rock settings, the presence and distribution of fracture zones in the geosphere will strongly influence groundwater system behaviour. A three-dimensional discretely fractured groundwater flow model with hydro-mechanical coupling and pseudo-permafrost was developed for a Canadian Shield setting. A discrete fracture zone network model, generated using MoFrac and delineated from surface features, was embedded onto a three-dimensional mesh for the numerical groundwater modelling, performed using HydroGeoSphere. A 121 ka North American continental scale paleo-climate simulation was applied to the domain with ice-sheet histories estimated by the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model. Hydro-mechanical coupling between the rock matrix and the pore fluid, due to the ice-sheet normal stress, and vertical strain were included. Areal loads are assumed homogeneous. Permeability reduction due to permafrost is applied to both rock mass and fracture zone elements. The sensitivity of freshwater heads to different conceptualizations of hydro-mechanical properties were investigated.

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