Turtle Mountain, the site of the 1903 the Frank Slide, has been widely studied. A large database of structural measurements allows the comparison and testing of recently developed techniques. This paper commences with a review of recent mapping of Turtle Mountain. A report on a recent investigation of the mountain using a combination of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning techniques is then presented. The advantages and limitations of both methods are highlighted. This study reveals that a combination of methods is required in order to adequately characterize the structure of such a large landslide. Emphasis is given to the different observation scales and the information that they can provide. Recommendations for future mapping strategies of similar high mountain slopes are made based on the results of the Turtle Mountain structural mapping program.


Turtle Mountain, the site of the 1903 Frank Slide, provides an ideal site to test a variety of techniques related to landslide characterization and monitoring and has been subject to numerous recent studies, as outlined by Froese & Moreno (2006). In terms of structural mapping, conventional field-based techniques as well as modern intrusive and non-intrusive mapping technologies have been applied (Cruden & Krahn 1973, Fossey 1986, Couture 1998, Jaboyedoff et al. 2006, Spratt & Lamb 2005, Theune et al. in press). Structural mapping is an important step in understanding the potential kinematics of failure and provide necessary input for stability analysis (Krahn & Morgenstern 1976, Cruden & Krahn 1978, Benko & Stead 1998). This paper reports some recent field investigations performed using ground-based and airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) to map the scar of the Frank Slide. The results obtained with these techniques will be presented and critically reviewed with regards to other techniques.

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